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Vigor Mind

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Supporting Research


1. Kiss B, Karpati E. Mechanism of action of vinpocetine [in Hungarian; English abstract]. Acta Pharm Hung . 1996;66:213–214.
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8. Horvath B, Marton Z, Halmosi R, Alexy T, Szapary L, Vekasi J, Biro Z, Habon T, Kesmarky G, Toth K. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Pentoxifylline, Piracetam, and Vinpocetine. Clinical europharmacology:
January/February 2002 – Volume 25 – Issue 1 – pp 37-42.
9. Meyer ED, Sauermann K. Pilot study about the application of Cavinton in ENT. Z Klin Med. 1985;40:51-54
10 Bodo D, Kotovskaia AR, Galle RR, Gavrilova LN, Gusakova GA. Effectiveness of the preparation Gavinton in preventing motion sickness. Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1982;16:49-51.

Sacha ichi

1. Dangour AD, Allen E, Elbourne D, Fasey N, Fletcher AE, Hardy P, Holder GE, Knight R, Letley L, Richards M, Uauy R. Effect of 2-y n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive function in older people: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;91(6):1725-32. Epub 2010 Apr 21
2. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.
3.  Fedorova I, Hussein N, Baumann MH, Di Martino C, Salem N, Jr. An n-3 fatty acid deficiency impairs rat spatial learning in the Barnes maze. Behav Neurosci. 2009;123(1):196-205. 
4.  Fedorova I, Salem N, Jr. Omega-3 fatty acids and rodent behavior. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;75(4-5):271-289. 
5. Kalmijn S, van Boxtel MP, Ocke M, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, Launer LJ. Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology. 2004;62(2):275-280.
6..  Kalmijn S, Launer LJ, Ott A, Witteman JC, Hofman A, Breteler MM. Dietary fat intake and the risk of incident dementia in the Rotterdam Study. Ann Neurol. 1997;42(5):776-782.
7.  Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003;60(7):940-946.
8.  Kyle DJ, Schaefer E, Patton G, Beiser A. Low serum docosahexaenoic acid is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s dementia. Lipids. 1999;34 Suppl:S245.
9.  Conquer JA, Tierney MC, Zecevic J, Bettger WJ, Fisher RH. Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment. Lipids. 2000;35(12):1305-1312.
10.  Tully AM, Roche HM, Doyle R, et al. Low serum cholesteryl ester-docosahexaenoic acid levels in Alzheimer’s disease: a case-control study. Br J Nutr. 2003;89(4):483-489.
11.  van Marum RJ. Current and future therapy in Alzheimer’s disease. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22(3):265-274.


1 Bhattacharya SK, Muruganandam AV. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat mode of chronic stress. Pharmacol Ciochm Behav 2003 Jun;75(3):547-55.
2. Dluley JN. Nootropic-like effect of ashwagandha in mice. Phytother Re. 2001 Sep;15(6):524-8.
3. Karnick CR, Indian Medicine, 3(2,3):1-5, April-July, 1991   4. Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Komatsu K. Neuirtic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by Withanolide A. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;144(7):961-71
5. Archana R, Namasivayam A. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Ja;64(1):91-3.
6 Bhattacharys SK, Satyan KS, Ghosal S. Antioxidant activit of glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera. Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Mar;35(3):236-9
7. Mishua LC, Singh BB, Dgenais S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera: a review. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Aug;5(4):334-46.
8. Tohda C, Kuboyama T, Komatsu K. Search for natural products related to regenration of the neuronal network. Neurosignals. 2005;14(1-2):34-45.
9 Jayaprakasam B, Padmanabhan K, Nair MG. Withanamides in Withaia somnifera frut protect PC-12 cells from betaamyloid responsible for alzheimer’s disease. Phytother Res. 2010 Jun;24(6):859-63.


1. Benton D et al. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr. Neurosci. 2001;4(3):169-78 2. Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on effecicacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano). 1993;5:123133. 3. Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, et al. Double-bline randomized controlled study of phsophatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986;73:136-140. 4. Villardita C, Grioli S, Salmeri G, et al. Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with intellectual deterioration. Clin Trials J. 1987;24:84-93. 5 Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer¡¦s disease: Results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988;24:130-134. 6. Suzuki S et al. Oral administration of soybean PS reduces ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampus. Jpn I Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;81[2]:237-9


1. David JM, Murphy EA, Carmichael MD, Davis B. Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2009 Apr;296(4):R1071-7. Epub 2009 Feb 11.
2. Su Wen Sun, Hu Qing Yu, Hong Zhang, Yuan Lin Zheng, Jian Jun Wang, Lan Luo.
Quercetin attenuates spontaneous behavior and spatial memory impairment in d-galactose–treated mice by increasing brain antioxidant capacity. Nutrition Research. Vol 27, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 169-175
3. Lu J, Zheng YL, Luo L, Wu DM, Sun DX, Feng YJ. Quercetin reverses D-galactose induced neurotoxicity in mouse brain. Behav Brain Res. 2006 Aug 10;171(2):251-60. Epub 2006 May 16.
4.Heo HJ, Lee Y. Protective effects of quercetin and vitamin C against oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:7514-7.


1. Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Malani N, Ichikawa H (2007). “Curcumin: the Indian solid gold”. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 595: 1–75.
2.  Yang F, Lim GP, Begum AN, et al. Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(7):5892-5901. 
3.  Lim GP, Chu T, Yang F, Beech W, Frautschy SA, Cole GM. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci. 2001;21(21):8370-8377. 
4. Choi, Hyunsung; et al. (July 2006). “Curcumin Inhibits Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 by Degrading Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: A Mechanism of Tumor Growth Inhibition”. Molecular Pharmacology  70 (5): 1664–71.
5. Frautschy, SA; Harris-White, ME, Miller, SA, Kim,P., Jimenez,I, Csizar E, Talamantes V, Balverde, Z, Chen PP, Yang, F., Cole GM, Joseph, JA, Shukitt, Hale, B. (Fall 2000). “Prevention of Aß amyloid peptide infusion induced behavioral deficits neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration by dietary anti-inflammatory antioxidant supplements”. 20th Annual Meeting Society for Neuroscience. New Orleans.
6.  Pan R, Qiu S, Lu DX, Dong J. Curcumin improves learning and memory ability and its neuroprotective mechanism in mice. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008;121(9):832-839.  
7. Frautschy, S.A.; Hu W, Kim P, Miller SA, Chu T, Harris-White ME, Cole GM. (Nov 2001). “Phenolic anti-inflammatory antioxidant reversal of Abeta-induced cognitive deficits and neuropatholo”. Neurobiol Aging 22 (6): 993–1005.
8. Lim, GP; Chu T, Yang F, Beech W, Frautschy SA, Cole GM. (2001). “The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse”. J Neurosci 21 (21): 8370–7
9.  Frautschy SA, Hu W, Kim P, et al. Phenolic anti-inflammatory antioxidant reversal of Abeta-induced cognitive deficits and neuropathology. Neurobiol Aging. 2001;22(6):993-1005.

Green tea extract

1.Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr . 1999;70:1040-1045.
2.Craig WJ. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am J Clin Nutr . 1999;70(suppl):491S-499S.
3. Shinichi Kuriyama, Atsushi Hozawa, Kaori Ohmori, Taichi Shimazu, Toshifumi Matsui, Satoru Ebihara, Shuichi Awata, Ryoichi Nagatomi, Hiroyuki Arai and Ichiro Tsuji Green tea consumption and cognitive function: a cross-sectional study from the Tsurugaya Project. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 83, No. 2, 355-361, February 2006.
4. Jae Woong Lee, et al. Green Tea (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits β-Amyloid-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction through Modification of Secretase Activity via Inhibition of ERK and NF-κB Pathways in Mice. J. Nutr. 2009 139: 10 1987-1993.
5. Silvia A. Mandel*, Tamar Amit, Limor Kalfon, Lydia Reznichenko and Moussa B. H. Youdim. Targeting Multiple Neurodegenerative Diseases Etiologies with Multimodal-Acting Green Tea Catechins. J. Nutr. 2008 138: 8 1578S-1583S
6.Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, Hofman A, Pols HA, Witteman JCM. Tea flavonoids may protect against atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam study. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:2170-2174.
7.Gomes A, Vedasiromoni JR, Das M, Sharma RM, Ganguly DK. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) in rat. J Ethnopharmocolgy . 1995;45:223-226.
8.Fujiki H, Suganuma M, Okabe S, et al. Mechanistic findings of green tea as cancer preventive for humans. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med . 1999;220(4):225 – 228.
9.Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr Mar 1, 2004;91(3):431-437.


1  Bender DA. Optimum nutrition: thiamin, biotin and pantothenate. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58(2):427-433.
2..  Glaso M, Nordbo G, Diep L, Bohmer T. Reduced concentrations of several vitamins in normal weight 2004 patients with late-onset dementia of the Alzheimer type without vascular disease. J Nutr Health Aging.;8(5):407-413.
3..  Kish SJ. Brain energy metabolizing enzymes in Alzheimer’s disease: alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and cytochrome oxidase. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;826:218-228.
4..  Meador K, Loring D, Nichols M, et al. Preliminary findings of high-dose thiamine in dementia of Alzheimer’s type. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1993;6(4):222-229.


1.  Selhub J, Bagley LC, Miller J, Rosenberg IH. B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(2):614S-620S.
2.  Riggs KM, Spiro A, 3rd, Tucker K, Rush D. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(3):306-314. 
3.  Deijen JB, van der Beek EJ, Orlebeke JF, van den Berg H. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992;109(4):489-496.
4.  Bryan J, Calvaresi E, Hughes D. Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects memory performance but not mood in women of various ages. J Nutr. 2002;132(6):1345-1356.
5.  Balk EM, Raman G, Tatsioni A, Chung M, Lau J, Rosenberg IH. Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function: a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(1):21-30. 

Tien Ma

Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses


1.You Zhi Qu, Min Li, Yan Ling Zhao,  Zhen Wei Zhao, Xiao Yan Wei, Jin Ping Liu, Li Gao, Guo Dong Gao. Astragaloside IV attenuates cerebral ischemia–reperfusion-induced increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rats. European J. Phar. Vol606, issue 1-3, March 2009, 137-141.
2.Yumin Luo, Zhen Qin, Zhen Hong, Xinmin Zhang, Ding Ding, Jian-Hui Fu, Wei-Dong Zhang, Jun Chen.Astragaloside IV protects against ischemic brain injury in a murine model of transient focal ischemia. Neuroscience Letters. Vol 363, issue 3, 17 June 2004, 218-223.
3.He Ting, Ming Liang, Wang Shao-Bin, Wu Qiang, Yin Yan-Yan, Li Wei-Ping. Protective effects of extract of astragalus on injuries of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats and anoxia in mice. Chinese Phar. Bulletin 2004-05.


1.Forgo I, Kayasseh L, staub JJ. Effect of a standardized ginseng extract on general well-being, reaction time, lung function and gonadal hormones. Med Welt. 1981;32:751-756.
2.Ellis JM, Reddy P. Effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:375-379.
3.Sorensen H, Sonne J. A double-masked study of the effects of ginseng on cognitive functions. Curr Ther Res. 1966:57;959-968.
4.D’Angelo L et al. A double blind,placebo-controlled clinical study on the effect of standardized ginseng extract on psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;16:15-22.
5.Siegl C, Siegl HJ. The possible revision of impaired mental abilities in old age: a double-blind study with Panax ginseng. Therapiewoche. 1979;29:4209-4216.


1. Xiuli Zhang, Aihong Zhang, Bo Jiang, Yongming Bao, Jingyun Wang, Lijia An. Further pharmacological evidence of the neuroprotective effect of catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa. Phytomedicine. Vol 15, Issue 6-7, 20 June 2008: 484-490
2. Xiu Li Zhang, Bo Jiang, Zhi Bo Li, Shuang Hao, Li Jia An. Catalpol ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative damage in the brain of senescent mice induced by d-galactose. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Vol. 88, Issue 1; Nov 2007:64-72
3. Feng Yin-man, Gao Zhi-qing, Yao Jian-ping. Effect of Rehmanniate Decoction on Brain Function and the Activity of Acetylcholinesterase in Dementia Mice. Liaoning J of TCM. 2002-03
4. Liu Dan-yang, et al. Effects of compound rehmannia on AchE in mice with SAM-P/8 Alzheimer’s disease. J Qiqihar Med College 2010-23.
5. Tang YQ et al. Protective effects of plant of rehmannia root extract on mitochondrial respiratory function of heart, brain and kidney in hypoxia rat. Zhongcaoyao. 2002, vol. 33;10: 915-917.

Angelica sinensis

1. Shih-Hao Huang, Chun-Mao Lin, Been-Huang Chiang. Protective effects of Angelica sinensis extract on amyloid b-peptide-induced neurotoxicity. Phytomedicine 15 (2008) 710–721
2. Yi-Chian Wu1 and Ching-Liang Hsieh. Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis
(Danggui) on cerebral infarction. Wu and Hsieh Chinese Medicine 2011, 6:32.
3. Lin B. Polyphenols and Neuroprotection against Ischemia and Neurodegeneration. Mini Rev. Med Chem. 2011 Oct 28.
4. T. Mamiya, M. Kise, and K. Morikawa. Ferulic acid attenuated congnitive deficits and increase in carbonyl proteins induced by buthonine-sulfoximine in mice.  Neuroscience Letters, vol. 430, no. 2, pp. 115–118, 2008.
5. M. J. Kim, S. J. Choi, S.-T. Lim et al.  Ferulic acid supplementation prevents trimethyltin-induced cognitive deficits in mice Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 1063–1068, 2007.
6. L. Yu, Y. Zhang, R. Ma, L. Bao, J. Fang, and T. Yu. Potent protection of ferulic acid against excitotoxic effects of maternal intragastric administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage or pregnance on developing mouse fetal brain.  European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 170–177, 2006.
7. J. J. Yan, J. Y. Cho, H. S. Kim et al., “Protection against β-amyloid peptide toxicity in vivo with long-term administration of ferulic acid,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 2001.
8. X. Kuang, J. R. Du, Y. X. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, and H. Y. Peng, Postischemic administration of Z-Ligustilide ameliorates cognitive dysfunction and brain damage induced by permanet forebrain forebrain ischemia in rats.  Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 213–221, 2008.
9. H. Y. Peng, J. R. Du, G. Y. Zhang et al.  Neuroprotective effect of Z-Ligustilide against permanent focal ischemic damage in rats.  Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 309–312, 2007.
10. X. Kuang, Y. Yao, J. R. Du, Y. X. Liu, C. Y. Wang, and Z. M. Qian, Neuroprotective role of Z-Lilgustilide against forebrain ischemic injury in mice. Brain Research, vol. 1102, no. 1, pp. 145–153, 2006.
11. Di Chen, Jiping Tang, Nikan Khatibi, Mei Zhu, Yingbo Li, Chengyuan Wang, Rong Jiang, Liu Tu, Shali Wang. Treatment with Z-Ligustilide, a Component of Angelica sinensis, Reduces Brain Injury after a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats. Pharmacol Exp Ther June 2011 337:663-672.
12. Harn HJ, Lin SZ, Lin PC, Lin CY, Lin PY, Chang LF, Yen SY, Hsieh DK, Lin FC, Tai DF, Chiou TW.  Local interstitial delivery of z-butylidenephthalide by polymer wafers against malignant human gliomas. Neuro Oncol. 2011 Jun;13(6):635-48.


Bermejo Benito P, Abad Martinez MJ, Silvan Sen AM, et al. In vivo and in vitro antiinflammatory activity of saikosaponins. Life Sci 1998;63:1147-56.

Acori graminei rhizoma

1. Pulok Kumar Mukherjee, Venkatesan Kumar, Mainak Mal, Peter J. Houghton. In vitro Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of the Essential Oil from Acorus calamus and its Main Constituents. Planta Med 2007; 73(3): 283-285.
2. Gacche, R.N., Dhole N.A. Antioxidant and possible anti-inflammatory potential of selected medinal plants prescribed in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Phar Bioology 2006;44(5):389-395.
3.Acuna U.M., Atha D.E., Ma J., Nee M.H., Kennelly E.J. Antioxidant capacities of ten edible Notth American plants. Phytother Res 2002;16(1):63-65.
4. Manikandan S., Srikumar R., Jeya Parthasarathy N., Sheela, Devi R. Protective effect of Acorus calamus LINN on free radical scavengers and lipid peroxidation in discrete regions of brain against noise stress exposed rat. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28(12):232702330.
5. Manikandan S., Devi R..S. Antioxidant property of alpha-asarone against noise-stree-induced changes in different regions of rat brain. Pharmacol Res 2005;52(6):467-474.
6. Pradeep K Shukla et al. Neuroprotective effect of Acorus calamus against middle cerebral artery occlusion–induced ischaemia in rat Hum Exp Toxicol April 2006 25: 187-194
7. Pradeep K. Shukla, Vinay K. Khanna, M. M. Ali, R. R. Maurya, S. S. Handa, R. C. Srimal. Protective effect of Acorus calamus against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity. Phytotherapy Research. Vol 16 Isuues3:May 2002; 256-260.
8. Bombi Lee, YoungKook Choi, Hocheol Kim, Sun Yeou Kim, Dae-Hyun Hahm, Hye-Jung Lee, Insop Shim.  Protective effects of methanol extract of Acori graminei rhizoma and Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus on ischemia-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairments in the rat. Life Sciences, Volume 74, Issue 4, 12 December 2003, Pages 435-450.
9. Ji Hyun Kim, Dae-Hyun Hahm, Hye-Jung Lee, Kwang Ho Pyun, and Insop Shim. . Acori graminei rhizoma Ameliorated Ibotenic Acid-Induced Amnesia in Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 December; 6(4): 457–464.
10. Jungsook Cho, Nam Eok Joo, Jae-Yang Kong, Dae-Young Jeong, Kap Duk Lee, Byung-Soo Kang. Inhibition of excitotoxic neuronal death by methanol extract of Acori graminei rhizoma in cultured rat cortical neurons. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 73, Issues 1–2, November 2000: 31-37.
11. Bains J.S., Dhuna V. Singh J., Kamboj S.S. Nijjar K.K., Agrewala J.N. Novel lecterns from rhizoma of two Acorus species with mitogenic activity and inhibitory potential towards murine cancer cell lines. Int Immunopharmacol 2005;5(9):1470-1478.
12. Mehrotra S., Mishra K.P., Maurya R., SrimalR.C., Yadav V.S., Oandey R., Singh V.K. anticellular and imunosupressive properties of ethanolic extract of Acorus calamus rhizoma. Int Immunopharmacol 2003;3(1):53-61.
13. Zhang H, Han T, Yu CH, Rahman K, Qin LP, Peng C. Ameliorating effects of essential oil from Acori graminei rhizoma on learning and memory in aged rats and mice. J. Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;59(2):301-9.
14. Ji Hyun Kim, Dae-Hyun Hahm, Hye-Jung Lee, Kwang Ho Pyun, Insop Shim. Acori graminei rhizoma ameliorated ibotenic acid-induced amesia in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009 Dec; 6 (4):457-464.